Ada 95, Java, and C++
Some think Java is like C++. Usual C++ idioms do not apply to Java as it is not a C++ superset or subset; Java is a derivation with many modifications, extensions. Both language syntax are alike, but semantics and philosophy are very different. Java is nearer Ada 95 than C++, except in syntax.
Ada, C, C++, and Java vs. The Steelman
Compares 4 programming languages (Ada 95, C, C++, Java) with the needs of "Steelman", original 1978 requirements document for Ada language. Big detailed table.
An Empirical Comparison of C, C++, Java, Perl, Python, Rexx, and Tcl
By Lutz Prechelt. Neutral, quantitative analysis of 7 languages in title, for 7 variables, via 80 implementations of the same requirement set. PDF format. [IEEE Computer]
An Empirical Comparison of C, C++, Java, Perl, Python, Rexx, and Tcl for a Search/string-processing Program
One set of requirements, 80 implementations, coded by 74 different programmers in various languages, compared for properties: run time, memory use, source text length, comment density, program structure, reliability, effort needed.
Are Scripting Languages the Wave of the Future?
Programming guru, Robert Martin, on languages of the coming decade. [ITworld.com]
C# Strikes a Chord
Compares 4 languages: C, C++, C#, Java. Shows family genealogy. [Dr. Dobb's Journal]
C#: A Language Alternative or Just J--?, Part 1
Compares C# to Java, describes features and design trade-offs, places C# in context of broader Microsoft .Net strategy. Text, tables, code samples, links. By Mark Johnson. First article of 2-part series. [JavaWorld]
CLOS, Eiffel, and Sather: A Comparison
References, zipped Postscript, and inlined gifs.
Comparisons of Tcl with Other Systems
Many comparisons between Tcl/Tk and other similar systems, most copied from comp.lang.tcl.
D vs Other Languages
Yes-No table with definitions compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, on: GC, functions, arrays, OOP, performance, reliability, compatibility, conditional compiling. [Digital Mars]
Eiffel and Delphi Compared
Text compares differences of several main aspects.
Forth Versus C
Pro-Forth question and answer text, some questions have several answers.
Forth and Not C
Pro-Forth text explains why C is used more than Forth.
Four-fold Increase in Productivity and Quality
Published internal study, of Ericsson AXD 301 ATM switch project, using Erlang, C, C++, Java. Results: programmer productivity, code error rates, roughly proportional to source code size.
Guidelines for Choosing a Computer Language: Support for the Visionary Organizations
Multipage study compares: 4GL/5GL, 3GL (Ada 95, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Java, Smalltalk), 2GL (Assembly). Divides language (definition) from traits of products that implement and support it. Several sections, tables, appendixes.
Java and C++ Resource Management Comparison
Detailed discussion of the techniques used in Java and C++ to implement leak free and exception safe resource management. Covers memory management, finalizers, destructors and finally blocks with examples.
Languages Versus D
Growing table compares D, C, C++, C#, Java, Delphi, Python, Perl, Eiffel, Sather, Smalltalk, Lisp/CLOS, Ada. Many clarifying comments below. [Wiki4D, Open Content]
Lisp as an Alternative to Java
Brief text on comparisons of C, C++, Java, Lisp, Ron Garret / Erann Gat study, with conforming example program Lisp source code; very useful links.
Lisp as an Alternative to Java
Ron Garret / Erann Gat comparison, starts from 1999 Prechelt study results, adds many insights; as text, a few tables. [Intelligence]
Multi-Core Ant Colony Optimization for TSP in Erlang
Compares Erlang, GHC Haskell, Standard ML (Alice, MLton); text, tables, graphs.
Nine Language Performance Round-up: Benchmarking Math & File I/O
Small-scale benchmark test run on 9 languages or variants: Java 1.3.1 and 1.4.2, C via gcc 3.3.1, Python 2.3.2 and via Psyco 1.1.1, 4 from Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003: Visual Basic/C#/C++/J#.
PLEAC: Programming Language Examples Alike Cookbook
Suite of common programming problems solved in Ada, C++, Erlang, Guile, Haskell, Java, Masd, merd, NASM, Objective Caml, Perl, Pliant, Python, Ruby, Tcl.
Perl vs. Python vs. Ruby
Comparison with text, code samples, many reader comments. Michael Tsai weblog.
Programming Information from HB
Programming Language Benchmarks
Compares the same program in Ada, C, Forth, FORTRAN, Java, Lisp, Perl, R, Ruby. Goal: support decisions in language choice for making compute-intensive Web programs. Text, table, code samples.
Programming Language Comparison
Table and text compares many features of some popular object-oriented languages: C++, C#, Eiffel, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby, Smalltalk, Visual Basic.
Programming Languages Mini-howto
Briefly compares major Linux programming languages: C, C++, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Perl, PHP, Python, Tcl; by Risto S. Varanka.
Programming Languages Study
Includes: diagram, history of languages; history of language concepts; syntax across languages; Scriptometer measures scripting ease of languages; mutability and sharing of various values in various languages.
Python Compared to Other Languages
Many links to comparisons involving Python.
Qtime Collection, FTP Download, Gzipped
Ray Tracer Language Comparison
Mini ray tracer benchmark written equivalently in C++, Java, SML, Objective Caml, Lisp, Scheme. Compares verbosity, performance; text, code samples, tables, image, graph. [Flying Frog Consultancy]
Reasons for TOM
TOM attempts to address flaws in these languages: C++, Cecil, Common Lisp, Eiffel, Java, Objective-C, Smalltalk.
Schizoid Classes: Of Class, Type, and Method
Compares Java and Smalltalk, in text and table. By Rodney Bates. [ACM Queue]
Simple Programs in Various Different Programming Languages
Common algorithms and other sample code in the languages: Bash and Bourne shells, C/C++, Java, MATLAB/Octave, Perl, Python, Ruby, Scheme.
Syntax Across Languages
Operator names and syntax elements in various programming languages.
TIOBE Programming Community Index: TPCI
Updated monthly. Shows language popularity via world-wide availability of skilled engineers, courses, 3rd party vendors. Calculated from search engines Google, MSN, Yahoo.
Brief comparison Curl with High Level assembler, BCX, Dark Basic, Mono (C#/.Net implementation), Python, Squeak, XBasic/XBlite. Curl applet examples.
Team Eiffel: The Zen of Python, Part I
Text compares Python and Eiffel, via Tim Peters' Zen rules.
The BNF Web Club Language
Browse, explore some programming language syntax rules, see relations between rules, understand them via BNF (Backus-Naur Form notation) and syntactic diagrams: SQL, PL/SQL, SQL2, IDL; Ada 95, Java, Modula-2; Lazy, Lisp, M5.
The C Family of Languages
Interview with Dennis Ritchie, Bjarne Stroustrup, James Gosling.
The Case against C
Five short essays compare C (and C++ by extension) to Fortran: Why C is Not a Good Numerical Language, Why C is Not a Good First Language, C's Poor Loop Constructs, C's Pointers and Optimisation, Optimisation through Directives.
The Computer Language Benchmarks Game
Performance measurements and source code for multiple benchmark programs in different languages; with side-by-side comparisons between any two programming language implementations, and interactive boxplot chart comparisons between any 15.
The Quine Page
Collection of self-reproducing programs: each outputs a copy of its own source code; about 60 languages.
University of Michigan's Language Guide
Each entry includes history, description, code examples, and references.
What I Hate About Your Programming Language
What Languages Fix
Compares many languages in brief text, describes each by the problem it fixes. [Paul Graham]
What's Wrong with Perl
Author explains what he considers wrong about Perl, presents Python as an alternative. Descriptions, code samples, links.
Why Pascal is Not My Favorite Programming Language
Brian Kernighan's comparison of Pascal and C
Why to Move from ASM to C
Brief text compares Assembly to C; lower to higher level language. ScienceProg.